Steamindex homepage Christmas thoughts Kevin: Spearmint Toram Beg's favourite ; Trigo and Honeyswell and so on and on: The arrival of Lambert's railway miscellany prompted the creation of this page. Lambert's work was excluded from this webpage as it failed to identify its sources and in fairness did not claim to be an anthology.
The fifth through ninth used dashes as well as dots, but proved to be impractical and were soon abandoned. The dash occupying the top row of the original sixth decade was simply dropped, producing the modern fifth decade.
Assignment[ edit ] Historically, there have been three principles in assigning the values of a linear script print to Braille: Using Louis Braille's original French letter values; reassigning the braille letters according to the sort order of the print alphabet being transcribed; and reassigning the letters to improve the efficiency of writing in braille.
Under international consensus, most braille alphabets follow the French sorting order for the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabetand there have been attempts at unifying the letters beyond these 26 see international braillethough differences remain, for example in German Braille and the contractions of English Braille.
This unification avoids the chaos of each nation reordering the braille code to match the sorting order of its print alphabet, as happened in Algerian Braillewhere braille codes were numerically reassigned to match the order of the Arabic alphabet and bear little relation to the values used in other countries compare modern Arabic Braillewhich uses the French sorting orderand as happened in an early American version of English Braille, where the letters w, x, y, z were reassigned to match English alphabetical order.
See Hungarian Braille and Bharati Braillewhich do this to some extent. A third principle was to assign braille codes according to frequency, with the simplest patterns quickest ones to write with a stylus assigned to the most frequent letters of the alphabet.
Such frequency-based alphabets were used in Germany and the United States in the 19th century see American Braillebut with the invention of the braille typewriter their advantage disappeared, and none are attested in modern use — they had the disadvantage that the resulting small number of dots in a text interfered with following the alignment of the letters, and consequently made texts more difficult to read than Braille's more arbitrary letter-assignment.
Finally, there are braille scripts which don't order the codes numerically at all, such as Japanese Braille and Korean Braillewhich are based on more abstract principles of syllable composition.
Academic texts are sometimes written in a script of eight dots per cell rather than six, enabling them to encode a greater number of symbols.
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See Gardner—Salinas braille codes. Luxembourgish Braille has adopted eight-dot cells for general use; for example, it adds a dot below each letter to derive its capital variant. Form[ edit ] Silver wedding bands with names Henri que and Tita written in braille Braille was the first writing system with binary encoding.
Within an individual cell, the dot positions are arranged in two columns of three positions. A raised dot can appear in any of the six positions, producing sixty-four 26 possible patterns, including one in which there are no raised dots. For reference purposes, a pattern is commonly described by listing the positions where dots are raised, the positions being universally numbered, from top to bottom, as 1 to 3 on the left and 4 to 6 on the right.
For example, dot pattern describe a cell with three dots raised, at the top and bottom in the left column and at the top of the right column: The lines of horizontal Braille text are separated by a space, much like visible printed text, so that the dots of one line can be differentiated from the braille text above and below.
Different assignments of braille codes or code pages are used to map the character sets of different printed scripts to the six-bit cells. Braille assignments have also been created for mathematical and musical notation.
However, because the six-dot braille cell allows only 64 26 patterns, including space, the characters of a braille script commonly have multiple values, depending on their context.
That is, character mapping between print and braille is not one-to-one. In addition to simple encoding, many braille alphabets use contractions to reduce the size of braille texts and to increase reading speed. See Contracted braille Writing braille[ edit ] Braille typewriter Braille may be produced by hand using a slate and stylus in which each dot is created from the back of the page, writing in mirror image, or it may be produced on a braille typewriter or Perkins Brailleror an electronic Brailler or eBrailler.
Interpoint refers to braille printing that is offset, so that the paper can be embossed on both sides, with the dots on one side appearing between the divots that form the dots on the other see the photo in the box at the top of this article for an example. Using a computer or other electronic device, Braille may be produced with a braille embosser printer or a refreshable braille display screen.
Braille has been extended to an 8-dot code, particularly for use with braille embossers and refreshable braille displays.
In 8-dot braille the additional dots are added at the bottom of the cell, giving a matrix 4 dots high by 2 dots wide. The additional dots are given the numbers 7 for the lower-left dot and 8 for the lower-right dot.
Eight-dot braille has the advantages that the case of an individual letter is directly coded in the cell containing the letter and that all the printable ASCII characters can be represented in a single cell.Sean O'Brien and Don Paterson.
Train songs. London: Faber & Faber. There is a short, but bitter sweet introduction, but no biographical details of the poets, some of whom are not well known, although many are. When writing to a woman, When ending a letter in French, choose a closing that reflects the type of relationship you have with the correspondent.
How to End a Written Letter in French. French Business Letters - Correspondance commerciale: Formulas and formats for writing French business correspondence: Writing a good French business letter depends on just one thing: knowing the correct formulas. This lesson consists of categorized lists of the various formulas needed for commercial correspondence.
Pre-closing a letter. Writing a good French business letter depends on one thing: knowing the correct formulas. Here they are in one table: lists of the various formulas needed for effective French commercial correspondence or correspondance commerciale.
First, let's sketch out broad brush what components are in all. Sean O'Brien and Don Paterson. Train songs.
London: Faber & Faber. There is a short, but bitter sweet introduction, but no biographical details of the poets, some of . “As always” or “As ever” is useful in closing a letter to someone with whom you may not be close or haven’t seen for some time.
Signatures Sign with your first and last name if you’re writing to someone you’ve never met face to face.