Thanks to the honors class of fall semester for the study questions.
At the meal, which occurred during the traditional time for celebrating the Jewish feast of the Passover , he gave them the dramatic news that one of them would betray him. Not surprisingly, these works often embody various cultural assumptions or beliefs of their creators and of the society in which they were created.
This article examines the nature of some of those assumptions, and highlights various instances where they have been challenged, either by the creation of alternative depictions, or by alternative interpretations of the traditional view.
The article covers early variations in the image in Catholic Italy, transformations of the image in Lutheran Germany, and its customisation in selected colonised communities in Latin America and the Pacific. It also examines attempts to influence the nature of the image by various cultural or social groups, such as church reformers or feminists, and the role of the image in modern western culture.
These viewers have become so familiar with this drama-charged image , and so accustomed to the iconography of Christian art in general, that they would hardly regard it as a cross-cultural work at all.
They might even need to be reminded that it is based on an event which involved Jewish people and which occurred in Palestine. So, for example, the faces generally appear Italian — not surprising given that Leonardo sought his models for the painting in the streets of Milan.
The clothing adopted is a vaguely classical toga-and-cloak style which bears little relation to traditional Jewish clothing . The setting itself appears to be more suited to a Renaissance palazzo than the house of a friend.
The scenery glimpsed in the background looks more quintessentially Tuscan than Palestinian. And the food has been transformed from the traditional Passover lamb to what has recently been interpreted as fish and the decidedly non-kosher grilled eels — complete with orange slices — a popular dish in Renaissance Italy .
Even the rectangular shape of the table, and the placement of the sitters along one side, is an anachronism. This issue, prosaic as it may sound, tends to assume some significance in later Last Supper representations, so it is appropriate at this point to consider it in some detail.
In virtually all depictions of the Last Supper before the 12th century, the table is round or D-shaped : This shape was seen as embodying a special element of fraternal fellowship .
It also corresponded more closely with the Jewish practice of conducting Passover meals round low tables, or no tables at all, with diners semi-reclining on low lounges . In contrast, the long table shown by Leonardo was not commonly used for meals until the Middle Ages .
Furthermore, even after it had been adopted, the practice of seating diners along only one side, with servants attending to their duties from the other side, was reserved for particularly wealthy households, hardly a likely scenario for Jesus and the apostles .
It was convenient for a painter who needed to depict the faces of everyone present . For one thing, it reflected the seating pattern of the monks as they ate their daily meal at long refectory tables. For another, the bold horizontal line of the table, together with the receding perspectives of the architectural setting, helped create a convincing illusion that the action in the painting was taking place in a mezzanine attached to the refectory itself.
The gradual eclipse of the round table in traditional Last Supper representations may also have had a deeper significance. Starting in the Middle Ages, the position of the church altar table — which of course represented the table on which the Last Supper was conducted — began to become more withdrawn and physically remote from the laity.
This move was associated with a greater clerical dominance in worship and less frequent communion . The painting therefore reflected the wishes and attitudes of the Christian culture in which Leonardo was working.Essay on Frankenstein as a Critique of Mary Shelley's Society - Frankenstein as a Critique of Mary Shelley's Society Nature plays a large role in the novel, "Frankenstein", both as the natural world and human nature.
The book is clearly not a . Appearances: USA Comics#13 (Summer ) Silver Surfer I#7 (August, ) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), John Buscema (pencils), Sal Buscema (inks). This sad page details a few programmes that at the present time seem to be entirely missing or unavailable.
To Main Dinosaur TV. Menu. The Case Of The Bloody Iris. The Case of the Bloody Iris is a Italy mystery thriller by Giuliano Carnimeo (as Anthony Ascott).
Starring Edwige Fenech, George Hilton and Paola Quattrini. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, and the famous character of Frankenstein's monster, have influenced popular culture for at least a century. The work has inspired numerous films, television programs, video games and derivative works.
The character of the monster remains one of the most recognized icons in horror fiction. Catherine Helstone's brother, Laon, has disappeared in Arcadia, legendary land of the magical fae. Desperate for news of him, she makes the perilous journey, but once there, she finds herself alone and isolated in the sinister house of Gethsemane.