This year, EU-wide design law celebrates that significant milestone, albeit without a cake and ten candles. Difficult beginnings The birth itself was not an easy one. What was then the European Economic Community of only six member states had first looked at harmonising design law inwith a working group report concluding that any attempt at harmonisation would be hopeless. The work of the companion working groups on patents and trademarks progressed more quickly, with the Community Trade Mark CTM coming into force in
This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors.
It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes.
These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
Papen, a prominent monarchist and devout catholic, who in November was nominated by Hitler Commissioner for the strictly religious catholic Saar Basin, followed his mission there to build a bridge between altar and crown, i.
His reputation in the Saar Region rested upon his marriage with a daughter of an influential industrialist and his signature of the Concordat with the Vatican, which he had negotiated on behalf of the Reich Government in spring This law introduced, inter alia, new provisions for legal and administrative sanctions as well as criminal penalties which went considerably beyond such previously existing provisions.
Keywords German Imperial Banking Act; banking institutions; emergency decree; banking system; banking supervision; banking investigations; committee of enquiry; legal sanctions; administrative sanctions; criminal penalties.
Das Polizeistrafrecht des Using Germany as an example, this article is intended to demonstrate that statements on the scope of punishment remain imperfect without consideration of the law of police contraventions.
The article addresses the astonishing extent of penal power by the police in the first half of the 19th century as well as fundamental criticism by liberal scholars of criminal law.
The article presents a first overview of an undeveloped field of study and is intended to stimulate more detailed research. Keywords law of police contraventions; history of criminal law in the 19th century; decriminalization; Frankfurt Constitution ; Paul Johann Anselm Feuerbach; Carl Joseph Anton Mittermaier.
Jahrhundert Over the past fifteen years, Hungarian literary historians have outlined an idea of an interdisciplinary research program that aimed at exploring the early modern history of Hungarian political thinking.
One of the most important elements of the proposed work has been to ensure the availability of the texts to be analysed or analysable for the purposes of research.
The texts to be considered for research purposes are coming from highly various genres. One of the less well-known and less exploited types of texts to be analysed are pamphlets disputations that are related to the politics of the period and that educated the dozens of Hungarian peregrinating students who were raised in the 17th century.
Contemporary students could gain an insight through these texts and disputes into one of the most popular disciplines of the era, the fundamentals of political science.
The study and its annex attempt to identify all the disputations that were protected by students from Hungary or Transylvania at a university of Germany and the Netherlands in the 17th century. It gives an overview of the role of the disputes in the education and their place in contemporary political science.
It compares the features available from the database of disputes protected at German universities with the similar data from its own collection. In these so far underrated works, we should recognize the first traces of theoretical foundation of the Hungarian political thinking.
Hungary; German Universities; political science; early modern universities; education history. The Changing Structure of Labour Law: After the years of an indiscriminate Globalization, it is to see if a universal statute of international law does really exist.
And this for several reasons: All that is so despite the fact, the Global Law is not considered formally a de iure cathegory.
The argued arguments are remarkable and in some way very original. Thank to these theories, it is possible to establish some compass points in the relations between international and regional institutions, for example UN and European Union.
The fact is that no one can affirm the existence of an undiscussed or at least most accepted authority at international level. Notwithstanding a new kind or relations between these actors is now arising: The article concludes with a possible justification for this challenge of the state's sovereignty, rooted in ideas of legal pluralism.
Israel; family law; sovereignty; millet; legal pluralism. Two Decades of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic Functioning in a Discontinual Continuity Treatise on prescriptive and sociological-legal levels of the aspects, consequences, force and effect of the Constitution of the SR in the years In the course of four months of the year the Constitution acted as a basic law of the national republic statehood of the SR within CSFR, it provided the form of legal extinction of federation and the rise of two sovereign republics.
As a constitution of a sovereign state it was in force by the yearuntil the accession of the SR to the EU. Twenty years of history of the SR Constitution were marked by ten constitutional amendments to the supreme law.
The changes occurred in the period between to The Slovak Republic as an International entity is morally and legally continual with the Slovak, national and anti-fascist statehood. Die Kameral- und die sog.
The paper shows that the basic thesis of cameralism that the welfare of the state depends on good and complete legislation, precise compliance with laws and educated civil service in combination with the enlightened philosophy formed the foundation of the modern codification efforts, the formation of tertiary education in economics and administration, legislative regulation necessary for economic welfare of the state, populationism and agricultural reforms.
The political sciences, reflecting in terms of content and form the enlightened absolutism, became the theoretical foundation of the reforms of Austrian monarchs Maria Theresa and Joseph II.
The paper introduces in more detail the professor and Hofrat, Joseph Sonnenfels — from Vienna, Joseph Ignatz Butschek — from the Prague University, and some of their economic ideas which reflected in the reforms and measures of Maria Theresa and Joseph II.
The paper focuses on agriculture and the proposals for dividing land into lots, the so called Raabschen System, and the formation of Grain contributory fund.
It analyses the four tendencies dolus indirectus, culpa dolo determianata, aggravation, transient category of German criminal law, which was used as a model in the literature of Hungarian criminal law published from the middle of the 18th century to manuals, studiesas well as in textbook manuscripts and bills.From mainland Ukraine, the Crimean Peninsula extends southward, bordered on the west by the Black Sea and on the east by the Sea of Azov.
Stretching across the peninsula is a network of shallow, marshy inlets sprawling over roughly 2, sq km (1, sq mi). The publisher of the Journal on European History of Law is the STS Science Centre Ltd.
seated in London. The European Society for History of Law closely cooperates with the STS Science Centre Ltd. and helps with editing the journal. Education and Technology - Assumptions, Limitations, Scope and Delimitation The study will help establish whether participating teachers are curious and eager to learn new skills that will provide additional teaching opportunities.
Dec 01, · The scope of study is a section of a research paper that explains what information or subject is being analyzed.
For example, the scope of a historical research paper includes a scope section that explains what time period the writer is metin2sell.com: Resolved. *Any one of the Advanced Level Content – cum- Methodology Course from Group B(ii) (See, please Annexe: I) can also be opted by those who possess the Master’s degree in lieu of any One the subjects specified in Group B(i) provided there are at least 10 students in that subject and/or any Institute has the required facilities for opting that particular course without disturbing the basis.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December , officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union (USSR).
It was a result of the declaration number Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), although.