International relations of the Great Powers — The American Revolution —83 and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America around ended the first era of European imperialism.
Background[ edit ] David Livingstoneearly explorer of the interior of Africa and fighter against the slave trade By European powers had established small trading posts along the coast, but seldom moved inland.
Even as late as the s, European states still controlled only ten percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast.
Byonly Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control. Industrialisation brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication, especially in the forms of steamships, railways and telegraphs.
Medical advances also played an important role, especially medicines for tropical diseases. The development of quininean effective treatment for malariamade vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for Europeans.
Another inducement for imperialism arose from the demand for raw materials, especially coppercotton, rubber, palm oilcocoadiamonds, tea, and tinto which European consumers had grown accustomed and upon which European industry had grown dependent. Additionally, Britain wanted the southern and eastern coasts of Africa for stopover ports on the route to Asia and its empire in India.
These events might detract from the pro-imperialist arguments of colonial lobbyists such as the Alldeutscher VerbandFrancesco Crispi and Jules Ferrywho argued that sheltered overseas markets in Africa would solve the problems of low prices and over-production caused by shrinking continental markets.
Hobson argued in Imperialism that this shrinking of continental markets was a key factor of the global "New Imperialism" period.
William Easterlyhowever, disagrees with the link made between capitalism and imperialismarguing that colonialism is used mostly to promote state-led development rather than "corporate" development.
He has stated that "imperialism is not so clearly linked to capitalism and the free markets While tropical Africa was not a large zone of investment, other overseas regions were. The vast interior between Egypt and the gold and diamond-rich southern Africa had strategic value in securing the flow of overseas trade.
Britain was under political pressure to secure lucrative markets against encroaching rivals in China and its eastern colonies, most notably IndiaMalayaAustralia and New Zealand.
Thus, it was crucial to secure the key waterway between East and West—the Suez Canal. However, a theory that Britain sought to annex East Africa during the onwards, out of geostrategic concerns connected to Egypt especially the Suez Canal  has been challenged by historians such as John Darwin and Jonas F.
The growing navies, and new ships driven by steam power, required coaling stations and ports for maintenance.
Defense bases were also needed for the protection of sea routes and communication lines, particularly of expensive and vital international waterways such as the Suez Canal.
Colonies with large native populations were also a source of military power; Britain and France used large numbers of British Indian and North African soldiers, respectively, in many of their colonial wars and would do so again in the coming World Wars.
The same year, Britain occupied Egypt hitherto an autonomous state owing nominal fealty to the Ottoman Empirewhich ruled over Sudan and parts of ChadEritreaand Somalia. A rising industrial power close on the heels of Britain, Germany began its world expansion in the s.
After isolating France by the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary and then the Triple Alliance with Italy, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck proposed the —85 Berlin Conferencewhich set the rules of effective control of a foreign territory.
Weltpolitik world policy was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II inwith the aim of transforming Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy.This lesson will explore the 19th and 20th century colonization of Africa, which forever changed the political landscape of the continent.
In doing so, it will highlight the Berlin Conference and. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, European countries began their scramble for Africa which caused African to suffer from violence like wars, slavery and unfairness, but there was also a positive, peaceful and diplomatic consequences and events in Africa like fair trade system, new technology and the security given to Africans under European rule.
Imperialism By the late 19th and early 20th century, Europe was expanding its borders. In an attempt to grow its economy and culture, Europe’s superpowers began to search for new soil.
Africa was an easy target; it wasn’t politically secure and it wasn’t modernized. In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions.
Imperialism By the late 19th and early 20th century, Europe was expanding its borders. In an attempt to grow its economy and culture, Europe’s superpowers began to search for new soil. Africa was an easy target; it wasn’t politically secure and it wasn’t modernized. Colonialism and Imperialism. "Gunboat diplomacy", one of the historical buzzwords for Europe's intercourse with Africa in the final third of the 19th century, also occurred in Turkey and China. However, unlike the empires of the late 19th century, Spanish world rule was characterized by being pre-modern, and British colonial rule no. During the New Imperialism period, by the end of the 19th century, Europe added almost 9,, square miles (23,, km 2) – one-fifth of the land area of the globe – .
By the late 19th century, Berlin had replaced London as the banker of the world. True New imperialism brought fierce competition among the nations and was a profoundly destabilizing force. Compare and Contrast old and new imperialism New Imperialism of the late 19th and early 20th centuries compared to Old Imperialism of the 16th and 17th centuries.
Imperialism is the spread of control over territories across the globe.