Explanation of Hypothesis Application for Teaching The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability. Acquisition involves the subconscious acceptance of knowledge where information is stored in the brain through the use of communication; this is the process used for developing native languages. Krashen states that this is often the product of formal language instruction.
Input hypothesis Affective filter hypothesis However, in spite of the popularity and influence of the Monitor Model, the five hypotheses are not without criticism.
The following sections offer a description of the fifth and final hypothesis of the theory, the affective filter hypothesis, as well as the major criticism by other linguistics and educators surrounding the hypothesis.
Definition of the Affective Filter Hypothesis The fifth hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis, accounts for the influence of affective factors on second language acquisition. Affect refers to non-linguistic variables such as motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety.
According to the affective filter hypothesis, affect effects acquisition, but not learning, by facilitating or preventing comprehensible input from reaching the language acquisition device.
In other words, affective variables such as fear, nervousness, boredom, and resistance to change can effect the acquisition of a second language by preventing information about the second language from reaching the language areas of the mind. Furthermore, when the affective filter blocks comprehensible input, acquisition fails or occurs to a lesser extent then when the affective filter supports the intake of comprehensible input.
The affective filter, therefore, accounts for individual variation in second language acquisition. Second language instruction can and should work to minimize the effects of the affective filter.
First, Krashen claims that children lack the affective filter that causes most adult second language learners to never completely master their second language.
Such a claim fails to withstand scrutiny because children also experience differences in non-linguistic variables such as motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety that supposedly account for child-adult differences in second language learning.
Furthermore, evidence in the form of adult second language learners who acquire a second language to a native-like competence except for a single grammatical feature problematizes the claim that an affective filter prevents comprehensible input from reaching the language acquisition device.
Although the Monitor Model has been influential in the field of second language acquisition, the fifth and final hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis, has not been without criticism as evidenced by the critiques offered by other linguists and educators in the field.
References Gass, Susan M. An introductory course, 3rd edn. Applied Linguistics 5 2. Principles and practice in second language acquisition. How languages are learned, 3rd edn. Dhaka University Journal of Linguistics 2 4.Out of all of Krashen’s hypotheses, the Affective Filter hypothesis seems to get the least attention.
Yet this is the one that really resonates with me. Basically, it says that a “filter” can affect how well we acquire comprehensible input. Basically, input reaches your brain, which in turn. The hypotheses are the input hypothesis, the acquisition–learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis.
The . The affective filter is a theoretical construct in second language acquisition that attempts to explain the emotional variables associated with the success or failure of acquiring a second language. Finally, the fifth hypothesis, the Affective Filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition.
These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. affective-filter hypothesis: Krashen argues that comprehensible input is not enough to ensure language acquisition. Language learners also have to be receptive to that input.
When learners are bored, angry, frustrated, nervous, unmotivated or stressed, they may not be receptive to language input and so they 'screen' the input.
The fifth hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis, accounts for the influence of affective factors on second language acquisition. Affect refers to non-linguistic variables such .